- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 105-108.
A study on the needs to improve Korea abattoir's critical control point of HACCP system
- Seongjoon Kim, Kwanghoon Choi, Donghoon Myung, Hangsung Chung, Sukwon Kim, Nonghoon Choe
- These days abattoirs' hygiene of Korea is regulated by Hazzard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). Although 20 years have been left since first HACCP was adjusted in Korea, 12% of abattoirs got inconsistence on evaluations. Food poisoning caused by bacteria feces like pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella has not decreased. These bacteria on meat crosscontaminate at the abattoir. Therefore, field verification of abattoir's critical control point (CCP) and experiments to find alternative ways of the CCP were conducted. The aerobic bacteria were measured before and after high-pressure water based washing process set as CCP in most abattoirs. Four parts of cattle carcasses were selected to apply sponge-swab method. The effects were < 1 log reduction which is not significant. Lactic acid (LC), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) were used to measure the effect of reducing bacteria on beef by the different time. LC has 1.24–2.02 log reduction for aerobic bacteria. ClO2 has 1.44–1.96 log reduction for aerobic bacteria. SAEW has 1.1–1.91 log reduction for aerobic bacteria. There was significant difference according to concentrations (p < 0.05). This study presents legitimacy for hygiene improvement of CCP by field verification. In addition, chemical disinfectants that can be mechanically applied have better reduction effects of high-pressure washing.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 109-116.
Development and evaluation of semi-nested PCR for detection of the variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene of Mycoplasma Synoviae in chicken
- Tawatchai Pohuang, Patchara Phuektes, Sucheeva Junnu
- This study aimed to develop a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the direct detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (M. synoviae) from clinical samples using three newly designed oligonucleotide primers specific to the variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene and differentiate M. synoviae field strains based on a nucleotide deletion or the insertion of the prolinerich repeat (PRR) region of the vlhA gene. The developed semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay revealed positive results in 12 out of 100 clinical samples collected from chickens showing lameness and joint swelling. Six positive samples were selected randomly for sequencing, and sequence analysis revealed 96.3-100% nucleotide identities compared to the reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences of the strains in this study were closely related to WVU1853 (Spain), CK.MS.UDL.PK.2014.2 (Pakistan), and F10-2AS (USA) strains, but they were distinct from the M. synoviae-H vaccine strain sequence. M. synoviae obtained from these samples were identified as types A and C with a length of 38 and 32 amino acids, respectively. These results indicated that the specific and sensitive semi-nested PCR could be a useful diagnostic tool for the direct identification of clinical samples, and the sequence analysis of the partial vlhA gene can be useful for typing M. Synoviae.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 117-122.
Comparative analysis of serological tests and fecal detection in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection
- Hong-Tae Park, Seungmin Ha, Hyun-Eui Park, Soojin Shim, Tai Young Hur, Han Sang Yoo
- Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic, wasting infectious disease in ruminants that causes enormous economic losses to the dairy and beef cattle industries. The most effective way to eradicate JD is to detect infected individuals as early as possible and remove them from the herd. However, it is difficult to detect infected individuals early with the currently using diagnostic methods. Two serological diagnostic kits commercially used worldwide and a fecal detection test were compared using 298 serum samples and feces of cattle in this study to present an efficient diagnostic method. Although there was a high correlation between the 2 serological diagnostic kits (R2 = 0.7473), kit A showed a higher serological positive rate. However, the correlation between fecal tests and serological diagnosis was very low. MAP was also detected in fecal tests in many serologically negative individuals. In the periodical diagnosis of JD, MAP was detected in the feces of only cows with the higher antibody titer to MAP. These results suggest that for effective eradication of JD, early detection of infected individuals by fecal tests together with the serological tests currently in use and by removal of infected individuals are needed.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 123-131.
Evaluation of the clinical accuracy of six portable blood glucose meters in dogs
- Min-Keun Shin, Hakhyun Kim, Taesik Yun, Ji-Houn Kang, Byeong-Teck Kang
- Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are widely used because of their practicality. However, the accuracy of PBGMs has frequently been questioned. The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that might interfere with measurements made using PBGMs, and to assess the clinical utility of 6 PBGMs. The glucose concentrations measured using the PBGMs were compared with those obtained using a reference method. The agreement between the measured values was assessed using Spearman correlation analysis, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and consensus error grid analysis. Mann-Whitney and KruskalWallis tests were performed to identify the parameters affecting glucose measurement. The results indicated that all of the PBGMs tested perform adequately for use in veterinary practice. In most cases, measurements made using PBGM corresponded well with the blood glucose values obtained using the reference method. Error grid analysis revealed that most of the PBGM values fell within zones A and B. However, some measurements of blood glucose concentrations < 80 mg/dL fell into zone C. PCV, and triglyceride and total protein concentration, significantly affected the output of some of the PBGMs. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the characteristics of the PBGM that they use.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 133-137.
Electrolyte and acid-base imbalance in native calves with enteropathogenic diarrhea
- Seongwoo Kang, Jinho Park, Kyoung-Seong Choi, Kwang-Man Park, Jin-Hee Kang, Dong-In Jung, Dohyeon Yu
- Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in calves, and remains a major health challenge. Although there are many studies on the related pathogens, the understanding of the clinicopathological changes is limited. This study aimed to identify the pathogens and observe the clinicopathological changes in electrolytes and acute phase proteins (APPs) associated with diarrhea. Blood samples and fecal samples were collected from 141 calves for the determination of APPs, electrolyte and acid-base status and identification of enteropathogens, respectively. Single or co-infections with enteropathogens, including virus (bovine viral diarrhea virus, coronavirus, and rotavirus), Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, and Escherichia coli K99 were detected in both non-diarrheic and diarrheic calves. Levels of APPs such as serum amyloid A, haptoglobin and fibrinogen were comparable between diarrheic and nondiarrheic calves. Hypoglycemia, high blood urea, electrolytes and acid-base imbalance (hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and decreased bicarbonate), and strong ion difference (SID) acidosis showed a significant association in diarrheic calves (p < 0.01). Particularly, significant hyponatremia, bicarbonate loss, SID acidosis, hypoglycemia, and elevated blood urea nitrogen were found in rotavirusinfected calves. Monitoring the clinicopathological parameters of APPs and electrolyte levels could be vital in the clinical management of diarrheic calves.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 139-144.
Comparison of access window created by cervical ventral slot and modified slanted ventral slot in canine cadaver
- Ho Young Kang, Jinsu Kang, Haebeom Lee, Namsoo Kim, Suyoung Heo
- Ten cadavers were studied to compare the accessibility of cervical vertebral canal with conventional standard ventral slot and modified slanted ventral slot. One group performed standard ventral slot procedures at the C3-4, C5-6. The other group performed modified slanted ventral slot with inverted cone technique procedures at the C3-4, C5-6 computed tomography was performed before and after surgery. The accessibility of cervical vertebral canal with conventional standard ventral slot and modified slanted ventral slot using computed tomography in C3-4 and C5-6 intervertebral space was compared. Although smaller ostectomy was performed in the modified slanted ventral slot, some lesions were more accessible but limitations were obvious in C3-4 and C5-6 intervertebral disk space. After the disc material has been identified through accurate preoperative diagnostic imaging, less morbidity and complications can be expected if the appropriate surgical method is selected based on the lesion of compression.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 145-153.
Effects of poly (ethylene glycol-propylene glycol) copolymer on hemostasis and osteogenesis in a rat calvarial defect model
- Ha-Eun Kim, Hun-Young Yoon, Eun-Jin Kim, Sun-Jong Kim
- This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a bioabsorbable bone hemostatic agent comprising poly (ethylene glycolpropylene glycol) copolymers (PEG-PPG) on hemostasis and osteogenesis. Bilateral 3 mm diameter calvarial defects were created in 99 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The defects were filled with PEG-PPG or bone wax. The defects of control group were left unfilled. Virtual autopsy was performed to evaluate bioabsorption. The calvaria were subjected to x-ray microtomography (microCT) and histological examination. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using microCT; furthermore, white blood cell count and histological examination were performed. After application of PEG-PPG and bone wax, immediate hemostasis was achieved. Autopsy revealed that PEG-PPG disappeared within 48 h at the application site; in contrast, bone wax remained until 12 weeks. The PEG-PPG and control groups showed significantly more osteogenesis than the bone wax group with respect to BV/TV and BMD at 3, 6, and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Histology revealed that the bone wax group exhibited little bone formation with inflammation. In contrast, PEG-PPG and control groups showed significantly more qualitative osteogenesis than the bone wax group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PEG-PPG showed immediate hemostasis and was absorbed to allow progressive osteogenesis.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 155-161.
Pathological characteristics on porcine enteritis associated with porcine circovirus type 2 in Jeju
- Seong-Hwan Mun, Hyoung-Seok Yang, Jae-Hoon Kim
- From 2006 to 2009, 50 pigs suspected of enteritis associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) (EAPC) were collected. Gross and histopathologic examinations and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed on the small intestine of 50 pigs. The pigs with EAPC were concentrated in grower pigs (68%), and diarrhea (84%) was the most common clinical sign. Grossly, the walls of the small intestine were thickened, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged. The histopathologic features in the small intestine with EAPC were characterized by lymphoid depletion, histiocytic infiltration, and formation of basophilic grape-like inclusion bodies and multinucleated giant cells in gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT) and lamina propria. According to IHC, PCV-2 antigens were more intense and distributed widely in GALT (98%) than lamina propria (82%) of the small intestine. Coinfection with other enteric pathogens was detected in 26 pigs (52%). Twenty-four pigs (48%) were confirmed to be a PCV-2 single infection. Collectively, infected PCV-2 in the small intestine may induce an immunosuppressive status of individuals and then allow secondary co-infections in the digestive system. This study shows that PCV-2 can induce diarrhea and enteric lesions in pigs without a co-infection of other enteric pathogens.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 163-171.
Virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes of pathogenic Escherichia coli from piglets showing diarrhea before and after ban on antibiotic growth promoters in feed
- Kyung-Hyo Do, Jae-Won Byun, Wan-Kyu Lee
- This study examined the prevalence of adherence factors, toxin genes, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and resistance genes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets with diarrhea before and after the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in Korea from 2007 to 2018. In this period, pathogenic 474 E. coli isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets. The virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes were assayed using a polymerase chain reaction, and the susceptibility to antibiotics was tested according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. After the ban on AGPs, the frequency of F4 (12.5% to 32.7%) increased significantly, and LT (31.9% to 20.3%) and EAST-I (46.5% to 35.2%) decreased significantly. In addition, the resistance to streptomycin (45.8% to 67.9%), cephalothin (34.0% to 59.4%), and cefazlin (10.4% to 28.8%) increased significantly. Colistin resistance plasmid-mediated genes, mcr-1 and mcr-3, were detected after the ban on AGPs. The results of this study can provide useful data for analyzing the impact of the ban on AGPs on the virulence profiles and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolated from piglets with diarrhea in Korea.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 173-177.
Genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from edible offal
- Se Hyun Son, Kwang Won Seo, Yeong Bin Kim, Eun Bi Noh, Keun-Woo Lee, Tae-Ho Oh, Seung-Joon Kim, Jae-Chan Song, Tae-Wan Kim, Young Ju Lee
- Edible offal is easily contaminated by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli is considered a serious public health problem, thus, this study investigated the genetic characteristics of FQ-resistant E. coli from edible offal. A total of 22 FQ-resistant E. coli isolates were tested. A double mutation in each gyrA and parC led the highest MIC. Four (18.2%) isolates carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The fimH, eaeA, escV, astA, and iucC genes were confirmed. Seventeen isolates (77.3%) were positive for plasmid replicons. The isolates showed high genetic heterogeneity based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 179-182.
Uterine leiomyosarcoma in a cat
- Hyemin Na, Donghak Choi, Woo-Chan Son, Kija Lee
- A 16-year-old cat presented with a 2-week history of anorexia and lethargy. Radiography revealed a soft-tissue opacity, heart-shaped mass between the descending colon and urinary bladder. Ultrasonography showed a large uterine body with a heterogeneously hypoechoic, thickened wall and hypoechoic intraluminal fluid. Computed tomography revealed a large, fluid-filled uterine mass with contrast enhancement, without evidence of regional lymph node or pulmonary metastasis. Ovariohysterectomy was performed and leiomyosarcoma was confirmed by histology. No notable abnormalities were observed during the 1-year postoperative follow-up periods. This report describes the diagnostic imaging and treatment of a rare case of feline uterine leiomyosarcoma.
- Korean J Vet Res 2020, 60(3), 183-186.
Klebsiella pneumoniae infection secondary to bovine viral diarrhea in two prematurely born calves
- Kyunghyun Lee, Ha-Young Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Kyoung-Ki Lee, ByungJae So, Ji-Youl Jung
- This paper describes the development of neurological signs of two prematurely born calves four days after birth. The pathological examination results indicated fibrinopurulent polyserositis, including meningoencephalitis with suppurative bronchopneumonia. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a was detected in most of the internal organs, and the bacterial colonies cultured from the samples were identified as Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Molecular analysis via multilocus sequence typing identified a different K. pneumoniae isolate in each calf-type 14 in calf A and type 65 in calf B. This is the first report identifying K. pneumoniae sequence types 14 and 65 in cattle.